Background: There is an elevated prevalence of depression and PTSD reported in residents of Occupied Palestine compared to their neighboring country of Israel. Objective: To determine the causes of increased prevalence of PTSD and depression compared to their Israeli counterparts, Palestinians would inform local and global mental health programs of the severity, allowing for better treatment opportunities. Method: Thirty-two original studies published between 1974 and 2020 were reviewed using a combination of PubMed, Google Scholar, and independent textbooks to search for materials and analyze statistics and information. The inclusion criteria included cross-searching the topics' Palestine, PTSD, Depression, Israel, and Jordan' and using this technique resulted in 120 articles. The following aspects were considered: study type, sample, article title, and key findings, limiting the literature review to 32 articles. Results: Palestinians are much more likely to suffer from PTSD and depression than the global average and their neighboring countries. The global prevalence of depression and PTSD are 5% and 3.6%, respectively. The prevalence of severe PTSD in children living in the Gaza Strip is 32.7%. Furthermore, depression in Palestine is among the highest rates in the world, affecting 40% of Palestinians.

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